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Tuesday, June 23, 2009

Glossary - Cooking Methods

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Glossary of Cooking Methods

Cooking Term
Meaning
Baking
Cooking food items in a closed oven, like bread, cakes, puddings etc. utilizing heat to evaporate moisture for even cooking
Baghar/Chhonkha
Tadka/Tempering
Pouring a combination of spices / herbs in heated oil over the prepared dish, like dal
Baste / Basting
Moistening with gravy or melted fat / butter to prevent the food item from drying, like roasting, grilling / barbecuing
Beating
Technique used with thin mixtures / liquids to incorporate air and form a smooth consistency, like eggs
Bhunao
Searing the juices of the cooking items by roasting / frying, with the addition of masalas / spices
Roasting
In Indian cooking, roasting is usually done in a tandoor, like roasting kebabs, paneer and vegetables on a grill
a) Spit Roasting
Cooking food in direct contact with the fire flame, where food is basted with fat & turned on regularly to ensure even cooking and browning, like roasted / barbecued meats
b) Oven Roasting
Cooking in a closed oven at a constant temperature by dry circulating air as in baking of cake or roasting of chicken / mutton.
c) Pot roasting
Cooking small amount of food in a thick heavy pan (covered with a well fitting lid) over a very slow flame
Bind
Addition of egg, bread crumbs, sauce, flour etc. in dry ingredients for the purpose of combining the food items
Blanch
Putting ingredients (like spinach & tomatoes) in boiling water for a short time to remove skin & dirt and also to brighten the colour
Boiling
Cooking in boiling liquid (stock or water)
a) Par boil
Cooking to a certain extent of any food object by boiling or simmering.
b) Poaching
A special technique of slow cooking in a minimum amount of liquid, even below the simmering point without boiling, like eggs, fish
c) Simmer
Cooking food gently in liquid that bubbles steadily just below boiling point so that the food cooks in even heat without breaking up
Braising
Two way cooking, where a food is first roasted / fried and then cooked in some moistening
Broiling
Cooking by direct heat, food is cooked uncovered on hot metal, like griddle / frying pan / oven
Caramalize
Heating sugar to 110 degrees C and above, where it melts and turns brown
Chop / Chopping
Cutting food into smallest size cubes / square sing chopper, knife, scissors, processor etc.
Clarify
Removing impurities from liquids, butter etc. by heating, e.g. stock is clarified by adding egg white
Creaming
Softening of fat with a wooden spoon to add air in it
Cut & Fold
Adding flour into a batter of butter, sugar and eggs specially while making cakes
Dicing
Cutting vegetables into even sized cubes, e.g. potato, tomato, capsicum etc.
Dressing
Combination of herbs & spices in a medium like cream, vinegar, oil, etc., added prior to consumption for enhancing taste & flavour of the food
Dusting
Sprinkling flour where batter / dough is to be poured, like baking cakes, making chapattis
Emulsification
Blending one liquid in another, like preparing salad dressings
Fermentation
Aeration brought upon in a dough / batter through bacterial organic reactions, like bread dough, dosa batter etc.
Frying
Cooking in hot fat / oil, like shallow frying & deep frying
a) Shallow frying
Cooking with little fat / oil so that only bottom & side surfaces of the food are immersed in the oil to have crisp fried food items, like cutlets
b) Deep frying
Cooking the food completely immersed in hot fat / oil
Grating
Cutting vegetables by rubbing over a sharp, rough surface to have fine ingredients, like carrots, cabbages etc.
Grind
Crushing a food item to small pieces/ powder / paste in a mixer / grinder / grinding stone / mortar-pestle etc., like ginger, garlic, cinnamon, etc.
Grilling
Cooking by dry heat on a grid iron over fire / between electric heated grill bars
Juliennes
Cutting vegetables into long thin strips, like carrots, capsicums, ginger etc.
Kneading
Making dough by gradual combination of liquid with flour, like chapati, parantha, puris etc.
Marinade
A combination of yogurt, herbs, spices and condiments, applied to food items to make it tender prior to cooking
Marinate
Applying oil, spices, seasonings etc. to a food item to facilitate fast coking and enhance flavour
Mashing
Crushing soft foods, like cooked potatoes / vegetables
Mince
Grinding / reducing a food item to the smallest possible by using mixer / grinder, like meat, onions etc.
Peeling
Removing outermost layer of the food, like potato, mango etc.
Piping
Applying batter / cream through a piping bag, like cakes, making snacks (murukku), sweets (jalebi), etc.
Pressing
Technique to shape to foods (cutlets, chops) or separate liquids from solids (paneer)
Pressure cooking
Cooking in an enclosed vessel, where the boiling temp / pressure is increased to reduce the cooking time
Prick
Making small pointed openings on a food item with fork / knife
Puree
A smooth mixture obtained by passing cooked ingredients through a sieve / strainer
Refresh
Cooling hot food quickly under running water or by dipping in ice cold water
Roux
A thickening for soups / sauces made with flour, besan, maida and butter
Rubbing in
Rubbing fat into flour by hand until the mixture resembles breadcrumbs
Saute
Tossing & cooking food ingredients in a small quantity of oil / fat / butter continuously (stir) in the pan / griddle
Scrape
Removing food stuck on the inside of a platter / bowl etc.
Scooping
Giving a spherical shape to a fruit, vegetable and ice-cream for decorations / food presentations
Shred
Cutting vegetables into fine long pieces, e.g. shredding cabbage, spinach, etc.
Sift/Sieve
Passing dry ingredients through a fine sieve, e.g. sifting flour, besan etc.
Slice
Cutting any ingredient into thin pieces lengthwise
Slit
Slicing a food object so that the opposite side remains intact, used to fillings, e.g. chillies, tomato, capsicum
Smoking
Cooking by the smoke generated from live coals / burning wood dust to have an authentic smoked flavour in the food
Steaming
Cooking in steam (the temperature is higher than boiling water), produced by some liquid
Stewing
Cooking food (seared / unseared ) in liquid at simmering point, (mostly covered) for longer time to optimise doneness of tough meat & vegetables
Stirring
Mixing foods in a circular motion for mixing spices & ingredients and preventing sticking / burning
Stir-fry
Cooking small pieces of food in very little fat, tossing continuously over high heat
Toss
Mixing the ingredients by throwing the contents slowly in the air holding the handle so that the food does not get mashed
Trim
Removing excess / unwanted element of a food item or making it lean, like removing fat portion in meat
Whip
Cooking to incorporate air by beating and increasing volume, e.g. eggs, cream
Whisk
Mixing food items by beating / churning, like cream, yogurt

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1 comments:

kamalabhoopathy said...

Informative post

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